الأربعاء، 20 يناير 2016

معرفة الله

70 Major Sins .....

Islam Religion
70 Major Sins .....
1. Ascribing Associates To Allah, The Most High (Shirk)
2. Killing A Human Being
3. Sorcery
4. Not Performing the Prayer
5. Not Paying Zakat
6. Breaking One’s Fast During Ramadan Without an Excuse
7. Not Performing the Hajj When Able to
8. Showing Disrespect to One’s Parents
9. Severing the Ties of One’s Relatives
10. Adultery
11. Sodomy
12. Accepting Usurious Gain
13. Wrong Consuming an Orphan’s Property
14. Lying About the Prophet
15. FleeingFromtheBattlefield
16. The Leader Who Misleads His Followers, the Tyrant and the Oppressor
17. Arrogance, Pride, Conceit, Vanity and Haughtiness
18. Bearing False Witness
19. Drinking Alcohol
20. Gambling (Qimar)
21. Accusing a Woman of Adultery
22. Misappropriating Spoils of War, Muslim Funds or Zakat
23. Theft
24. Highwaymen Who Menace the Road
25. The Engulfing Oath
26. Taking People’s Property Through Falsehood
27. Collecting Taxes
28. The Consumption of Haram
29. Suicide
30. Telling Lies
31. The Dishonest Judge
32. Bribery
33. Women Imitating Men and Vice Versa
34. The Pimp and the One Who Permits His Wife To Fornicate
35. Marrying Solely to Return to the Previous Husband
36. Not Freeing Oneself of All Traces of Urine
37. Showing off in Good Work
38. Learning Sacred Knowledge for the Sake of this World or Concealing It
39. Breach of Faith
40. Reminding Recipients of One’s Charity to Them
41. Disbelieving in Destiny
42. Listening to the People’s Private Conversations
43. The Talebearer Who Stirs Up Enmity Between People
44. Cursing Others
45. Breaking One’s Promise or Pledge
46. Believing Fortunetellers and Astrologers
47. A Wife’s Rebellion Against Her Husband
48. Picture-making
49. Loudly Lamenting For the Dead or When Afflicted With an Adversity
50. Excess Against Others
51. Overburdening and Arrogance Against Others
52. Hurting One’s Neighbor
53. Hurting or Reviling Muslims
54. Harming the Servants of Allah
55. Dragging the Hem of One’s Garment Out of Conceit
56. Men Wearing Silk or Gold
57. Fleeing of the Slave
58. Slaughtering in Other Than Allah’s Name
59. Falsely Claiming Someone is One’s Father
60. Arguing, Picking Apart Another’s Words, and Quarreling
61. Withholding Excess Water From Others
62. Stinting When Weighing or Measuring Out Goods and Similar Merchandise
63. Feeling Secure From Allah’s Devising
64. Despairing of the Mercy of Allah and Losing of Hope
65. Forgoing the Congregational Prayer to Pray Alone Without A Legal Excuse
66. Constantly Missing the Friday and Congregational Prayer Without A Valid Excuse
67. Bringing Loss to the Bequest
68. Deception and Evil Schemes
69. Spying on the Muslims and Revealing Their Weaknesses
70. Disparaging the Companions of the Prophet.
Please Share....

Laurence Brown

Arabic and Aramaic are sister languages. Allah

‏‏‎Esa/Jesus a Prophet of Allah/God‎‏ مع ‏‎Mamohale Moloi Dimema‎‏ و‏‏5‏ آخرين‏‏.
Arabic and Aramaic are sister languages. Allah=Aalah [in Aramaic - the language spoken by Jesus (pbuh)] >> Moses & The Son of Maryam [Mary] - Eshoa [Jesus] Called Upon 'ALLAH' https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?v=597608427002361&set=vb.134560426640499&type=3&theater
>> Jesus Never Called or Said Convert People To Christianity !!
>> Aramaic, Jesus Language Spoken by 'Muslims' ‏‎kiki‎‏ رمز تعبيري
>> Is Allah the name of God in the Bible? Let's Check!
>> ["Another video [Clip] from Mel Gibson Movie where Aramaic - The Language of Prophet Jesus (pbuh) is used. Im Tired to repeat the same thing. If you ignore/don't know his language nor Arabic which is the closest one to it, I can't seek knowledge on your behalf - I share - pass the info - you make the effort to learn and study! Those who know them will realize how the words are exactly the same!"]
One Creator – One Message
The Creator of the heavens and the earth sent the prophet Moses (pbuh), after him He sent prophet Jesus(pbuh), and after him He sent prophet Muhammad (the last and the seal of prophets, pbuh). Not only Jesus(pbuh) repeated word-for-word what Moses(pbuh) said but Muhammad(pbuh) repeated word for word and confirmed what Jesus and Moses (pbut) said.
The following verse from the book of Deuteronomy contains an exhortation from Moses (pbuh):
"Shama Israelu Adonai Ila Hayno Adna Ikhad".
It is a Hebrew quotation which means:
"Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord"
[The Bible, Deuteronomy 6:4]
It was repeated word-for-word approximately 1500 years later by Jesus(pbuh) when he said “...The first of all the commandments is: Hear, O Israel; the Lord our God is one Lord.” (Mark 12:29)
Muhammad came along approximately 600 years later, bringing the same message again and confirming what Jesus and Moses (pbut) said:
…But the Christ said: "O CHILDREN OF ISRAEL! WORSHIP GOD, MY LORD AND YOUR LORD." (Qur’an 5:72)
“And your God is One God: there is no God but He...” (Quran 2:163)
Jesus (pbuh) wasn’t sent to all humanity but he was sent only to the tribes of Israel, the lost sheep of Israel.
“I was sent only to the lost sheep of Israel.” Matthew 15:24
When the people saw the sign which he had done, they said, "This is indeed the prophet who is to come into the world!" John 6:14
And the crowds said, "This is the prophet Jesus from...
[Click on the link and continue reading...]

Jesus Test = That Christians FAIL

The Deen Show What Everyone Should Know About Shariah |

The Deen Show What Everyone Should Know About Shariah | The Deen Show with Eddie

The message of Islam

The message of Islam is for the entire human race. acording to Islam, Allah is the God of the entire world and Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) is a messenger for the whole of mankind.
According to Islam, all men are equal, whatever be their color, language, race or nationality. Islam addresses itself to the conscience of humanity and banishes all false barriers of race, status and wealth. There can be no denying the fact that such barriers have always existed, and do exist even today in this so-called enlightened age. Islam, however, removes all these impediments and proclaims the idea of the whole of humanity being one family of God.
Islam is international in its outlook and approach. It does not admit barriers and distinctions based on color, clan, blood or territory such as were prevalent before the advent of Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him). These are rampant in different forms, even in this modern age.
Islam is a way of life that transcends race and ethnicity. The Glorious Qur’an repeatedly reminds us of our common origin:O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily the most honored of you in the sight of God is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And God has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things). (Al-Hujrat: 13)
The eradication of race consciousness is one of the outstanding moral achievements of Islam. In the contemporary world there is, as it happens, a crying need for the propagation of this Islamic virtue. It is conceivable that the spirit of Islam might be the timely reinforcement, which would decide this issue in favor of tolerance and peace, the historian A.J. Toynbee wrote in his book Civilization on Trial.
Islam unites the entire human race under one banner. To a world torn by national rivalries and feuds, it presents a message of life and hope, and of a glorious future.

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Islamic Online University


تمت مشاركة ألبوم ‏‎40 Rabbana Duas & Hadith An Nawawi‎‏: ‏‎Al Kahf Challenge‎‏ من قبل ‏‎Islamic Online University‎‏.
Benefit from this amazing project by The Ideal Muslimah. Memorize and learn tafsir of first ten and last ten ayaat of Surah Al Kahf.
There are split mp3 Audio files for those who cannot read Arabic. Just listen to the recitor and memorize.
تمت إضافة ‏‏17‏ صور جديدة‏ إلى ألبوم ‏‎Al Kahf Challenge‎‏ من قبل ‏‎40 Rabbana Duas & Hadith An Nawawi‎‏ — مع ‏‎Afroz Juveria‎‏ و‏‏7‏ آخرين‏.
WHAT IS AL KAHF CHALLENGE? ‏‎smile‎‏ رمز تعبيري
As a group we will be learning the following:
1. Some general facts about Surah Al Kahf
2. Memorizing + Learning tafseer of the first 10 and last 10 Ayaat of Surah Kahf.
3. What is fitna of Dajjal and how memorizing these ayaat can prevent us from that fitna.
Every post will have split mp3s of longer verses for easy memorization by 2 world renowned reciters.
a) Shaykh Maher Al Muaiqly.
b) Shaykh Hani Ar Rafai
Please join us and invite your family and friends to benefit from this Challenge.

How many Muslim Terrorists are there vs others?

Very interesting never thought about this Alhamdulilah

our new workshop on‪#‎Islam

iERA will be in Manchester on Saturday with our new workshop on‪#‎Islam‬, The ‪#‎Quran‬ and ‪#‎Science‬. If you love the miracles in the Quran, then don't miss this workshop. Book now at www.iera.org/fh

"The Jihadis Next Door": A Response to the Channel 4​ Documentary #jihad...

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Μετάφραση των εννοιών της Σούρατ Αν-Νας στα Ελληνικά - Ελληνικά

Θεμελιώδη Δόγματα Σιιτών - Ελληνικά - Αμπντ Αλλάχ μπιν Μωχάμμαντ Ασ-Σάλαφι

تفسير سورة النساء: (59-60) - بامباري - محمد تراوري

Very interesting never thought about this Alhamdulilah

Propisi sedžde tilaveta - Bosanski - Safet Kuduzović




(a) A person who cannot fast because of old age, or for whom fasting causes extreme hardship. But in the latter case, he should give one mudd (¾ kg. [750 gms.] of food-stuff, like, wheat or barley or bread, etc.) to a poor person for every fast. However, if he becomes capable of fasting later, he should, on the basis of recommended precaution, give the qadha' .

(b) A person who suffers from a disease which causes excessive thirst, making it unbearable, or full of hardship. But in the latter case, that is, hardship, he should give one mudd of food to a poor person for every fast. At the same time, as a recommended precaution, such a person may not drink water in a quantity more than essential. If he recovers later, enabling him to fast, then as a recommended precaution, he should give qadha' .
Note: A person cannot abandon fast on account of weakness. However, if his weakness is to such an extent that fasting becomes totally unbearable, there is no harm in breaking the fast.

(c) A woman who is in advanced stage of pregnancy, for whom fasting is harmful or for the child she carries. For every day, however, she should give one mudd (3/4 kg. [750 gms.]) of food to poor. In both the cases, she has to give qadha' for the fasts left out.
(d) If a woman is suckling a child and the quantity of her milk is small, and if fasting is harmful to her or to the child. But she will give one mudd of food per day to poor. In both the cases, she will later give qadha' for the fasts left out.
Note: This rule is specifically applicable in a circumstance where this is the only way of feeding milk to the child (as an obligatory precaution). But if there is an alternative, like, when more than one woman offer to suckle the child, then establishing this rule is a matter of ishkal.

(e) A woman who is in the state of Haidh or Nifas. She has to give qadha' for the fasts left out.

(f) If a person knows that fasting is not harmful to him, he should fast and his fast will be valid even if his doctor advises him that it is harmful. And if a person is certain or has a strong feeling that fasting is harmful to him, he should not fast even if the doctor advises for it. He/she is required to give qadha' for the fasts left out.
Note: If a person, without any shari'i reason does not observe qadha of the fasts left out during Mahe Ramadhan till next Ramadhan, then in addition to offering the qadha of the fasts he/she left , on the basis of obligatory precaution, he/she will give one mudd of food to poor for each fast left out.


If a person intentionally and voluntarily commits an act which invalidates fast, his/her fast becomes void and besides giving qadha he/she is
also required to give kaffara. However, if a person who is fasting eats or drinks something forgetfully, his/her fast remains valid.

The Kaffarah of leaving out a fast of Mahe Ramadhan is to:
• free a slave, or• fast for two months, or• feed sixty poor to their fill or give one mudd of food-stuff to each of them .
If a person breaks his/her fast with something haraam he/she will have to observe all the three kaffarah , as a recommended precaution.
Note: If it is not possible for him/her to fulfill any of the above, he/she should give sadaqa according to his/her means and seek Divine forgiveness. And the obligatory precaution is that he/she should give kaffarah as and when he/she is capable to do so.

4) NIYYAT FOR FASTING.(a) Fasting means that a person must, in obedience to the commands of Allah, from the time of adhan for fajr prayers up to the time of adhan for maghrib prayers, avoid nine things which will be mentioned later.
(b) It is not necessary for a person to pass the niyyat for fasting through his mind or to say that he would be fasting on the following day. In fact, it is sufficient for him to decide that in obedience to the command of Allah he will not perform from the time of adhan for fajr prayers up to the time of adhan for maghrib prayers, any act which may invalidate the fast. And in order to ensure that he has been fasting throughout this time he should begin abstaining earlier than the time of adhan for fajr prayers, and continue to refrain for some time after the adhan for maghrib prayers from acts which invalidate a fast.
(c) A person can make niyyat every night of the holy month of Ramadhan that he would be fasting on the following day, and it is better to make niyyat on the first night of Ramadhan that he would fast throughout that month.
(d) The last time for making niyyat to observe a fast of Ramadhan for a conscious person, is moments before the time of adhan for fajr prayers.
(e) If a person sleeps before the time for fajr prayers in Ramadhan without making a niyyat, and wakes up before zuhr to make a niyyat of fast, his fast will be in order. But if he wakes up after Zuhr , as a precaution, he should continue with the abstinence with the niyyat of qurbat and then give its qadha' also.
(f) If a person makes a niyyat before the time of Adhan for Fajr prayers to observe a fast, and then goes to sleep, and wakes up after Maghrib his fast is in order.
(g) If a child reaches the age of puberty before the time of adhan for fajr prayers in the month of Ramadhan he/she should keep fast, and if he/she reaches the age puberty after the adhan for fajr prayers, the fast on that day is not obligatory for him/her.
(h) If a patient recovers from his illness before zuhr in the month of Ramadhan, and if he has not done anything to invalidate the fast, he should make niyyat and fast. But if he recovers after zuhr , it will not be obligatory on him to fast on that day.
(i) If one doubts whether it is the last day of Sha'baan or the first day of Ramadhan then the fast on that day is not obligatory. However, if one wants to fast on that day he cannot do so with the intention of observing the Ramadhan fast, but if he makes an intention that if it is Ramadhan then it is the Ramadhan fast and if it is not Ramadhan then it is qadha' fast or some other fast like that, his fast will be valid. But it is better to observe the fast with the intention of qadha' fast or some other fast, and if it is known later that it was Ramadhan then it will automatically be Ramadhan fast. And if he learns on the same day before Maghrib that it is the first day of Ramadhan, then he should convert the intention to the Ramadhan fast.(j) If somebody is undecided in his niyyat whether to break the fast or not in Ramadhan, or decides to do so, immediately his fast becomes invalid even if he does not actually break it or is repentant of his intention.

5) THINGS WHICH MAKES A FAST VOIDThere are nine acts which invalidate fasts:
(i) Eating and drinking.(ii) Sexual intercourse.(iii) Istimna which means self abuse, resulting in ejaculation.(iv) Ascribing false things to Almighty Allah, or His Prophet or to the successors of the Holy Prophet.(v) Swallowing thick dust.(vi) Immersing one's head completely in water according to the common opinion (among Jurists).(vii) Remaining in Janabat or Haidh or Nifas till the Adhan for Fajr prayers.(viii) Enema with liquids.(ix) Vomiting.
Details of these acts will be explained in the following articles:

(a) If a person eats or drinks something intentionally, while being conscious of fasting, his fast becomes void, irrespective of whether the thing which he ate or drank was something normally eaten or drunk or whether it was small or large amount; even if a person, who is fasting, takes the tooth brush out of his mouth and then puts it back into his mouth, swallowing its liquid, his fast will be void, unless the moisture in the tooth brush mixes up with the saliva in such a way that it may no longer be called an external wetness.
(b) If a person who is fasting eats or drinks something forgetfully, his fast does not become invalid but the moment he realizes he should immediately throw out the food or drink from his mouth.
(c) If a person observing fast intentionally swallows something which remained in between his teeth, his fast will be invalidated.
Note: If a person knows that some particles of food which has remained in between his teeth, will go down into his stomach during the day, then he must clean his teeth with toothpick.
(d) Swallowing saliva does not invalidate a fast, although it may have collected in one's mouth owing to thoughts about sour things, etc..
(e) There is no harm in swallowing one's phlegm or mucous from head and chest as long as it does not come up to one's mouth. However, if it reaches one's mouth, the recommended precaution is that one should not swallow it.

(a) Sexual intercourse invalidates the fast, even if the penetration of the male organ was only up to the point of circumcision, and even if there has been no ejaculation.
(iii) ISTIMNA (self abuse, resulting in ejaculation).(a) If a person, who is observing fast, performs Istimna , his fast becomes void.
(b) If a person involves himself in Istimna with the intention of allowing semen to be discharged, even if he does not discharge, his fast will be void.
(c) If semen is discharged from the body of a person involuntarily, his fast does not become void.
(d) If a fasting person indulges in courtship without the intention of allowing semen to be discharged, and also, if he is sure that semen will not be discharged, his fast is in order, even if semen may be discharged unexpectedly. However, if he is not sure about the discharge and it takes place, then his fast is void.

(a) If a person who is observing fast, intentionally ascribes something false to Allah, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.w.) or his vicegerents (a.s.), verbally or in writing or by making a sign, his fast becomes void, even if he may at once retract and say that he has uttered a lie or may repent for it. And, as a recommended precaution, he should refrain from imputing lies to Bibi Fatema Zahra (a.s.) and the rest of the Prophets and their successors.
(b) If a person quotes something as the word of Allah or of the Holy Prophet with the belief that it is true, but realizes later that it is false, his fast does not become void.

(a) On the basis of obligatory precaution, allowing thick dust to reach one's throat makes one's fast void, whether the dust is of something which is halal to eat, like flour, or something which is haraam to consume like dust or earth.
(b) Allowing thin dust to reach one's throat will not invalidate the fast.
(c) As an obligatory precaution, a person who is observing fast, should not allow the smoke of cigarettes, tobacco, and other similar things to reach his throat.

(a) If a fasting person intentionally immerses his entire head in the water, his fast is known to be void according to the common opinion (among Jurists), even if the rest of his body remains out of water. But, according to the ruling of Ayatullah As-Seestani Dama Dhilluhu, this act does not invalidate the fast; it is an absolutely makrooh act, and as a measure of precaution, should be avoided.
(b) If a fasting person immerses his head under water with the niyyat of ghusl, both his fast and ghusl will be in order.

(a) If a person in j anabat does not take ghusl intentionally till the time of fajr prayers, his/her fast becomes void. And if a person, whose obligation is to do tayammum , willfully does not do it, his/her fast will also be void.
(b) If a person gets into the state of janabat during a night in the month of Ramadhan, and does not take ghusl intentionally till the time left before Adhan is short, he/she should perform tayammum and observe the fast. However, it is a recommended precaution that its qadha is also given.
(c) If a person is in janabat during a night in Ramadhan and knows that if he goes to sleep he will not wake up till fajr , he should not sleep before performing ghusl and if he sleeps without performing ghus l and does not wake up till fajr , his fast is void, and qadha and kaffarah become obligatory on him.
(d) When a person in janabat goes to sleep in a night of Ramadhan and then wakes up, the obligatory precaution is that if he is not sure about waking up again, he should not go to sleep before performing ghusl , even if he has a faint hope that he might wake up before fajr if he sleeps again.
(e) If a person in janabat in the night of Ramadhan feels certain or fairly hopeful that if he goes to sleep he will wake up before the time of fajr prayers, and is determined to do ghusl upon waking up, and oversleeps with that determination till the time of fajr prayers, his fast will be in order.
(f) If a person in janabat sleeps and wakes up during a night of Ramadhan and is certain or fairly hopeful that if he sleeps again, he will wake up before the time of fajr prayers, with full determination to do ghusl after waking up, and oversleeps till the time of fajr , he should observe the qadha of the fast of that day. And if he wakes up from his second sleep and goes to sleep for the third time and does not wake up till the time of fajr prayers, it is obligatory on him to observe the qadha as well as give the kaffarah , as a recommended precaution.
(g) When a person becomes mohtalim during sleep, the first, second and third sleep means the sleep after waking up; and the sleep in which he became mohtalim will not be reckoned to be the first sleep.
(h) If a person observing fast becomes mohtalim during day time, it is not obligatory on him to do ghusl at once.
(i) When a person wakes up in the month of Ramadhan after the fajr prayers and finds that he has become mohtalim his fast is in order, even if he knows that he became mohtalim before the fajr prayers.
(j) If a person whose obligation is tayammum after getting into the state of janabat , after performing tayammum it is not necessary for him/her to stay awake till the time of fajr prayers.
(k) A person who has touched a dead body can observe fast without having done ghusl for touching a dead body, and his fast does not become void even if he touches the dead body during the fast.
(l) If a woman becomes paak from haidh or nifas before the time of fajr prayers in the month of Ramadhan and does not do ghusl before fajr - or in the case of time being short, tayammum – intentionally, her fast will be void.
(m) If a woman becomes paak from haidh or nifas just near the time of fajr prayers in the month of Ramadhan, and has no time left for ghus l or tayammum, her fast is valid.
(n) If a woman becomes paak from haidh or nifas after the fajr or if haidh or nifas begins during the day, even just before the maghrib time, her fast is void.
(o) If a woman forgets to do ghus l for haidh or nifas and remembers it after a day or more, the fasts that she has observed will be valid.
(p) If a woman is in a sate of medium or excessive istihadha, her fast will be valid even if she does not carry out the rules of ghusls she is normally required to undertake when she is in the state of medium or excessive istihadha.

(viii) ENEMA.
(a) If liquid enema is taken by a fasting person, his fast becomes void even if he/she is obliged to take it for the sake of treatment.

(a) If a fasting person vomits intentionally his fast becomes void, though he may have been obliged to do so on account of sickness. However, the fast does not become void, if one vomits forgetfully or involuntarily.
(b) If a fasting person is certain that if he belches, something will come out from the throat, he should not, as a precaution, belch intentionally, but there is no harm in his belching if he is not certain about it.
(c) If a fasting person belches and something comes from his throat into the mouth, he should throw it out, and if it is swallowed unintentionally, his fast is in order.

(a) A traveler for whom it is obligatory to shorten a four rak'ats prayers to two rak'ats , should not fast. However, a traveler who offers full prayers, like, a person who is a traveler by profession or who goes on a journey for a haraam purpose, should fast while traveling.(b) If a person does not know that the fast of a traveler is invalid and observes fast while journeying, and learns about the rule during the day, his fast becomes void, but if he does not learn about the rule till maghrib , his fast is valid.
(c) If a person forgets that he is a traveler or forgets that the fast of a traveler is void, and observes fast while journeying, his fast is invalid.
(d) If a fasting person travels after zuhr , he should, as a precaution, complete his fast.
(e) If a fasting person travels before zuhr and had an intention from the previous night to do so, he cannot fast on that day. As a precaution, he cannot fast on that day even if he had no intention to travel from the previous night. In both the cases, he cannot break the fast till he has reached the limit of tarakkhus . If he does, he will be liable to give kaffarah .
Note: Masaels relating to the limit of tarakkhus can be obtained from your Resident Aalim or refer to Taudhihul Masael book in the section of Prayers of a traveler.)
(f) If a traveler reaches his hometown or a place where he intends to stay for ten days or more before Zuhr , and if he has not committed an act which invalidates a fast, he should fast on that day. But if he reaches after Zuhr , he cannot fast on that day.

Série audio : La lumière de l’aumône volontaire - Français - Ammar Abou Nawwass

Who Wrote The Bible ?

Who Wrote The Bible ?

Friedman, Richard Elliott
Summit Books (Simon & Schuster, Inc.) 1987
[We begin our quote from page 232-233]

Artistry Upon Artistry

The redactor
, whom I identify as Ezra, has been the least appreciated of the contributors to the Five Books of Moses. Usually, more credit is given to the authors of the stories and the laws. That may be an error.

The redactor was as much an artist, in his own way, as the authors of J, E, P and, D were in theirs. His contribution was certainly as significant as theirs.

His task was not merely difficult, it was creative. It called for wisdom and literary sensitivity at each step, as well as a skill that is no less an art than storytelling.

In the end, he was the one who created the work that we have read all these years. He assembled the final form of the stories and laws that, in thousands of ways, have influenced millions.

Is that his influence? Or is it the influence of the authors of the sources? Or would it be better to speak of a literary partnership of all these contributors, a partnership that most of them never even knew would take place? How many ironies are contained in this partnership that was spread over centuries? How many new developments and ideas resulted from the combination of all their contributions?

In short, the question for the last chapter of this book is: is the Bible more than the sum of its parts?

[end of quote]

Pentateuch [First five books appearing in the Old Testament]:

Moses is the major figure through most of these books, and early Jewish and Christian tradition held that Moses himself wrote them, though nowhere in the Five Books of Moses themselves does the text say that he was the author.

[Deut. 31:9,24-26 describes Moses as writing a scroll of the torah - but no claim that the scroll included all five books. Only later did torah come to mean the Pentateuch]

But the tradition that one person, Moses, alone wrote these books presented problems. People observed contradictions in the text. It would report events in a particular order, and later it would say that those same events happened in a different order. It would say that there were two of something, and elsewhere it would say that there was fourteen of that same thing. It would say that the Moabites did something, and later it would say that it was the Midianites who did it. It would describe Moses as going to a Tabernacle in a chapter before Moses builds the Tabernacle.

People also noticed that the Five Books of Moses included things that Moses could not have known or was not likely to have said. The text, after all, gave an account of Moses' death. It also said that Moses was the humblest man on earth; and normally one would not expect the humblest man on earth to point out that he is the humblest man on earth. (17f.)

Objections largely met through various forms of explanation (including midrash). But in the medieval period, the objections began to be met with an acknowledgment that Moses may not have been the sole author:

In the eleventh century, Isaac ibn Yashush, a Jewish court physician of a ruler in Muslim Spain, pointed out that a list of Edomite kings that appears in Genesis 36 named kings who lived long after Moses was dead. Ibn Yashush suggested that the list was written by someone who lived after Moses. The response to his conclusion was that he was called "Isaac the blunderer."


But the man who called him this, 12th century Spanish rabbi Ibn Ezra added:

Several passages that appeared not to be from Moses' own hand: passages that referred to Moses in the third person, used terms that Moses would not have known, described places where Moses had never been, and used language that reflected another time and locale from those of Moses.


Friedman suggests that Ibn Ezra recognized that these passages confirmed ibn Yashush's claim - but advised silence.

The silence was broken in the 14th ct. by Bonfils in Damascus. Bonfils wrote

"And this is evidence that this verse was written in the Torah later, and Moses did not write it; rather one of the later prophets wrote it." Bonfils was not denying the revealed character of the text. He still thought that the passages in question were written by "one of the later prophets." He was only concluding that they were not written by Moses. Still, three and a half centuries later, his work was reprinted with the references to the subject deleted.


[contrary to the old tradition that Joshua wrote the account of Moses' death] ...in the sixteenth century, Carlstadt, a contemporary of Luther, commented that the account of Moses' death is written in the same style as texts that precede it. This makes it difficult to claim that Joshua or anyone else merely added a few lines to an otherwise Mosaic manuscript.

In a second stage of the process, investigators suggested that Moses wrote the Five Books but that editors when over them later, adding an occasional word or phrase of their own. In the sixteenth century, Andreas van Maes, who was a Flemish Catholic, and two Jesuit scholars, Benedict Pereira and Jacques Bonfrere, thus pictured an original text from the hand of Moses upon which later writers expanded. Van Maes suggested that a later editor inserted phrases or changed the name of a place to its more current name so that readers would understand it better. Van Maes' book was placed on the Catholic Index of Prohibited Books.


In the third stage of the investigation, investigators concluded outright that Moses did not write the majority of the Pentateuch.

Hobbes (17th ct.) - example: the use of the phrase "to this day," which is not a phrase used by someone describing a contemporary situation

Four years later, Isaac de la Peyrère (French Calvinist) - "across the Jordan" (Deut 1:1), which would place Moses in Israel, which otherwise contradicts the claim that Moses never entered Israel. (book was banned and burned; de la Peyrère was arrested, forced to become a Catholic.)

Roughly contemporary, Spinoza published a unified critical analysis demonstrating the problematic passages pervaded the text:

There were the third-person accounts of Moses, the statements that Moses was unlikely to have made (e.g., "humblest man on earth"), the report of Moses' death, the expression "to this day," the references to geographical locales by names that they acquired after Moses' lifetime, the treatment of matters that were subsequent to Moses (e.g., the list of Edomite kings), and various contradictions and problems in the text of the sort that earlier investigators had observed. He also noted that the text says in Deuteronomy 34, "There never arose another prophet in Israel like Moses...." Spinoza remarked that these sound like the words of someone who live a long time after Moses and had the opportunity to see other prophets and thus make the comparison. (They also do not sound like the words of the humblest man on earth.) Spinoza wrote, "It is...clearer than the sun at noon that the Pentateuch was not written by Moses, but by someone who lived long after Moses." Spinoza was excommunicated from Judaism. Now his work was condemned by Catholics and Protestants as well. His book was placed on the Catholic Index, within six years thirty-seven edicts were issued against it, and an attempt was made on his life.


(Richard Simon, a Catholic priest who converted from Protestantism, wrote what he intended to be a critique of Spinoza, claimed that:

The core of the Pentateuch (the laws) was Mosaic but that there were some additions. The additions, he said, were by scribes who collected, arranged, and elaborated upon the old texts. These scribes, according to Simon, were prophets, guided by the divine spirit, and so he regarded his work as a defense of the sanctity of the biblical text.


But his contemporaries were not ready - he was attacked by Catholic clergy, expelled from his order, and his books were placed on the Index. Protestants wrote 40 refutations of his work. 1294 copies of his book were burned - 6 survived. An English translation landed the translator in the tower.

Eighteenth ct. - in response to doublets:

A doublet is a case of the same story being told twice. Even in translation it is easy to observe that biblical stories often appear with variations of detail in two different places in the bible. There are two different stories of the creation of the world. There are two stories of the covenant between God and the patriarch Abraham, two stories of the naming of Abraham's son Isaac, two stories of Abraham's claiming to a foreign king that his wife Sarah is his sister, two stories of Isaac's son Jacob making a journey to Mesopotamia, two stories of a revelation to Jacob at Beth-el, two stories of God's changing Jacob's name to Israel, two stories of Moses' getting water from a rock at a place called Meribah, and more.


- Three independent investigators (H. B. Witter, a German minister; Jean Astruc, a French medical doctor, and J. G. Eichhorn, a German professor) arrived at the same conclusion: two different sources for these stories, from writers who lived after Moses.


The sources:

J -- Yahweh/Jehovah as the name of God
E -- Elohim as the name of God
<p>P -- The largest: includes most of the legal sections, priestly matters</p><p>D -- Only found in the book of Deuteronomy</p>

opposition to the Documentary hypothesis in the 19th ct. - but in the 20th ct., major turning point with the encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu, Pope Pius XII, 1943, "the Magna Carta for biblical progress."

The Pope encouraged scholars to pursue knowledge about the biblical writers, for those writers were "the living and reasonable instrument of the Holy Spirit..." He concluded:

Let the interpreter then, with all care and without neglecting any light derived from recent research endeavor to determine the peculiar character and circumstances of the sacred writer, the age in which he lived, the sources written or oral to which he had recourse and the forms of expression he employed.


Eventually accepted by Protestant and Jewish scholars as well. In the current generation of Biblical scholars, the Documentary Hypothesis "continues to be the starting point of research, no serious student of the Bible can fail to study it, and no other explanation of the evidence has come close to challenging it."

It is, in my terms, the equivalent of quantum mechanics in physics.

The World that Produced the Bible: 1200-722 B.C.E.

Little historical information about the patriarchs, their experiences as slaves in Egypt, the wandering in the Sinai. Evidence for accurate picture of life of biblical only from about 12th ct. B.C.E., as the Israelites become established in this region.

Tribal - thirteen, "with considerable differences in size and population from the smallest to the largest. Twelve of the tribes each had a distinct geographical territory. The thirteenth, the tribe of Levi, was identified as a priestly group. Its members lived in cities in the other tribes' territories. Each tribe had its own chosen leaders."

Judges, priests: judges both heard disputes and provided military leadership. Priests served at religious ceremonies - first of all, sacrifices (receiving a portion of the sacrificed animal, produce).

Prophets - from any occupation: Ezekiel was a priest; Amos was a cowboy. "The word in Hebrew for prophet is nabi, which is understood to mean 'called.'"

Who is Richard Elliott Friedman?

"Friedman, one of our brightest young biblical scholars, adroitly combines the history of scholarship with an autobiographical account of his own search and findings. A fascinating and brilliant book, full of new insights and fresh discoveries. Reads like a detective story."
-- Frank Moore Cross, Hancock Professor of Hebrew and Other Oriental Languages, Harvard University

"Achieves that rare combination of serious scholarship and an eminently readable, even racy style. The finest book of its kind that I have read in years."
-- David Noel Freedman, Arthur F. Thurnau Professor of Biblical Studies, University of Michigan, and Editor, Anchor Bible Series

"A new paradigm for understanding the composition of the Bible. Novel, stimulating, a breath of fresh air, and a desideratum for Hebrew Bible research."
-- Abraham Malamat, Professor of the Bible, Hebrew University of Jerusalem

"Fascinating, full of suspense and surprises, a well written detective story,"
-- Richard J. Clifford, S. J., Dean and Professor of Old Testament, Weston School of Theology

"I ran through the manuscript in the space of a day, much as one might pick compulsively at a box of chocolates. It was simply too provocative to put down. Has the potential of being highly influential inside the field and among an informed public."
-- Baruch Halpern, Professor of Bible, York University, Toronto

"Not just another book about the Bible. One is amazed how much new data and how many intriguing ideas emerge from this newly published research."
-- Yigal Shiloh, Professor of Biblical Archeology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem

"Conveys a freshness and excitement of discovery that the old discipline has lacked for many decades. I find Friedman's account especially sympathetic, as will any other Bible reader who has ever stopped to wonder just whose text they are reading."
-- Alan Cooper, Professor of Bible, Hebrew Union College


[1] Redactor; someone who 'rewrites' or 'revises' text